Access to Citizenship and its Impact on Immigrant Integration

The research project 'Access to Citizenship and its Impact on Immigrant Integration (ACIT) has compared how European states regulate the acquisition of citizenship and the impact of citizenship on the socio-economic and political participation of immigrants.  

All results of the project are accessible on the EUDO CITIZENSHIP observatory at The project was financially supported by the European Fund for the Integration of Third Country Nationals, administered by DG Home Affairs.

The five consortium partners who carried out the project jointly are: the European University Institute, the Migration Policy Group (Brussels), University College Dublin, University of Edinburgh and Maastricht University.

 In its 18-month programme (from October 2011 to April 2013), ACIT developed four sets of citizenship indicators on citizenship laws (CITLAW), their implementation (CITIMP), and their impact on acquisition rates (CITACQ) and integration policies (CITINT) in all 27 EU Member States and accession candidate and EEA countries (Croatia, Iceland, FYROM Macedonia, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey). Ten EU Member States  (Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom) were selected for in-depth case studies because of their large immigrant and foreign populations, diverse citizenship laws and particularly high or low acquisition rates. National stakeholder roundtables were organised by NGO/think-tank partners in these 10 countries (in Vienna, Tallinn, Paris, Berlin, Budapest, Dublin, Rome, Lisbon, Barcelona, London). Simultaneously with the ACIT project, EUDO CITIZENSHIP has expanded and updated its national and international legal databases and country reports.

ACIT made the first-ever impact assessment of citizenship laws in each country and across Europe. The findings compare the impact of legal rules with that of societal factors such as origin, residence duration, gender, age and social status. In addition to databases, graphic tools for the four indicator strands and national reports research results are disseminated in ten national handbooks and four comparative analytical reports based on the indicators.



Comparative Studies

Access to Citizenship and its Impact on Immigrant Integration: EU Summary and Standards, by Bauböck, Rainer, Honohan, IseultHuddleston, Thomas, Hucheson, Derek, Shaw, Jo and Vink, Maarten

The Story Behind The Numbers: Why Immigrants Become Citizens in Europe, by Tjaden, Jasper Dag

Immigrant Naturalisation in the Context of Institutional Diversity: Policies Matter, but to Whom? by  Vink, Maarten; Prokic-Breuer, Tijana; Dronkers, JaapView publication details or download the preprint version

Membership and/or rights: analysing the link between naturalisation and integration policies for immigrants in Europe, by Vink, Maarten and Huddleston, ThomasRSCAS Policy Paper 2013/15.

The naturalisation procedure: measuring the ordinary obstacles and opportunities for immigrants to become citizens, by Huddleston, ThomasRSCAS Policy Papers 2013/16.

Which indicators are most useful for comparing citizenship policies?, edited by Bauböck, Rainer and Marc Helbling, RSCAS Working Paper 2011/54. Link to publication details.

Citizenship configurations: Analysing the multiple purposes of citizenship regimes in Europe, by Bauböck, Rainer and Vink, MaartenComparative European Politics, (2013) 11, 621–648.


Methodological Papers

Citizenship Status and the Integration of Immigrants: CITINT Indicators, by Hucheson, Derek and Jeffers, Kristen

Implementation indicators, by Huddleston, Thomas

CITLAW Indicators: How to Measure the Purposes of Citizenship Laws, by Jeffers, Kristen, Iseult Honohan and Bauböck, Rainer 


National Handbooks on "Access to Citizenship and its Impact on Immigrant Integration" 

Handbook For Austria, available in English and in German;

Handbook For Estonia, available in English and in Estonian;

Handbook for France, available in English and in French;

Handbook for Germany, available in English and in German;

Handbook for Hungary, available in English and in Hungarian;

Handbook for Italy, available in English and Italian;

Handbook for Ireland, available in English;

Handbook for Portugal, available in English and in Portuguese;

Handbook for Spain, available in English and in Spanish;

Handbook for the United Kingdom, available in English