EUDO Citizenship Law Indicators


2015 UPDATE: The CITLAW indicators now cover 6 new countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Russia and Ukraine. 

CITLAW indicators measure the degree of inclusion and freedom of choice for the target group of a legal provision. For birthright, naturalisation and conditions for renunciation the absence of a provision or the most restrictive conditions result in an indicator score of 0, whereas unconditional entitlements or the most inclusive provisions get a score of 1. For involuntary loss through withdrawal or automatic lapse, the absence of a provision results in a score of 1 and the most extensive state powers to withdraw citizenship in a score of 0.

Basic indicator scores are calculated on the basis of a list of substantive and procedural requirements for each mode of acquisition or loss using both additive and weighting formulas. 

CITLAW indicators are also aggregated at different levels in order to analyse more general features of citizenship laws. Formulas for calculating combined indicators are included in the pop-up descriptions in the chart menus. The 6 highest level CITLAW indicators that are calculated using all 45 basic indicators are: ius sanguinis, ius soli, residence-based ordinary naturalisation, naturalisation on specific grounds, voluntary renunciation and withdrawal/lapse.

CITLAW indicators have been calculated for 42 European states. We use the following labels for average indicators: EUROPE for all 41 states, EU 27 for all 2012 member states of the EU, EU 15 for the pre-2004 EU member states and EU 12 for the post-2004 accession states.

The first instalment of CITLAW indicators is based on citizenship laws at the end of 2011. In the future we plan to offer also series for past years that allow to analyse trends over time.

The CITLAW indicators have been developed by Rainer Bauböck (European University Institute), Iseult Honohan and Kristen Jeffers (University College Dublin) in consultation with Maarten Vink (University of Maastricht) and Thomas Huddleston (MPG).

Coding of CITLAW indicators is based on an assessment of legal provisions in national citizenship laws. If we learn that we have coded an indicator based on incomplete or wrong information, we will correct the coding as soon as possible. This means that from time to time there will be changes in the CITLAW scores. Please check the masterfile on this page to see the date of the latest changes. If you need to know which specific codes have changed compared to a previous version, please get in touch with the EUDO CITIZENSHIP research assistant. Please contact us also if you think you have found an error in our coding or if you have questions about how we have applied the coding rules specified in our explanatory paper.


Read the explanatory paper.

Download CITLAW data file (last updated May 2015).