EUDO Citizenship Integration Indicators

 

Differences in socio-economic outcomes for various groups can be visualized by selecting indicators and population categories. Population categories are divided at the first level into citizens and non-citizens, at the second level into natives and first generation immigrants/foreign-born, and at the third level into EU- and non-EU citizens. Among non-citizens, only first generation immigrants are included in our data, i.e. second and later generations without the citizenship of their country of residence are not included in the data set.

Some data may be omitted due to small sample sizes; we do not report indicator values where sample sizes for a particular population group are less than 100 or where the number of respondents counted in any category is less than 20 (Socio-Economic Status indicators).

Labour Force Indicators:

Unemployment: the number of people aged 15 to 74 unemployed, as defined by the International Labour Organisation, as a percentage of the labour force (the total number of people employed plus unemployed) of the same age group.

Economic Activity Rate: the total number of people aged 15 to 74 employed plus the total number of people unemployed (the labour force) as a percentage of the total population of the same age group.

Level of Education: the mean highest education attainment level among respondents aged 25 to 74.  Values correspond to mean education levels specified by the International Standard Classification on Education: (1) primary education; (2) lower secondary education; (3) higher secondary education; (4) post-secondary non-tertiary education; (5) university degree; (6) postgraduate studies.

Overqualification rate: calculated as a share of the population aged 25 to 74 with a high educational level (ISCED 5 or 6), and having low or medium skilled jobs (ISCO occupation levels 4 to 9) among employed persons having attained a high educational level of the same age group.

Socio-Economic Status Indicators:

Social Benefit dependence: measures receipt of family/children related allowance, housing allowances, and social benefits not elsewhere classified as the mean share of respondents’ gross annual income.

Poor dwelling (quality): aims to objectively measure the quality of the respondents’ accommodation.  Values correspond to the percentage of respondents who indicate that the dwelling in which they live has a problem with a leaking roof and/or damp ceilings, dampness in the walls, floors or foundation and/or rot in window frames and doors.

Poor dwelling (environment): aims to objectively measure the quality of the area in which the respondent resides.  Values correspond to the percentage of respondents who indicate that pollution, grime, or other environmental problems in the area caused by traffic or industry is a problem for the household.

Poor dwelling (crime): aims to objectively measure the quality of the area in which the respondent resides.  Values correspond to the percentage of respondents who indicate that crime, violence, or vandalism in the area is a problem for the household.

Difficulty making ends meet: measures the level of difficulty the respondents’ household has in paying its usual expenses.  Values correspond to the percentage of respondents that indicate they have some difficulty, difficulty, or great difficulty paying usual household expenses.

Housing cost burden: measures the average percentage of monthly disposable household income spent on monthly housing costs.

Unmet health need: measures the percentage of respondents who indicated that there had been at least one occasion during the last twelve months when the respondent needed medical or dental examination or treatment and did not receive treatment.

Labour Force Participation indicators are derived from the 2008 EU Labour Force Survey Ad Hoc Module 2008 on ‘The Labour Market Situation of Migrants and Their Descendants’ (Eurostat). Socio-Economic Status and are derived from the 2008 cross-sectional EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC)(European Commission, Eurostat). Eurostat has no responsibility for the results and conclusions, which are those of the researchers.

CITINT indicators have been developed by Derek Hutcheson and Kristen Jeffers (University College Dublin).

Download the explanatory text.

Download CITINT data file.