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Recent publications on citizenship laws and policies

 

Anticipating the citizenship premium: before and after effects of immigrant naturalisation on employment


By Floris Peters, Maarten Vink & Hans Schmeets, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2017

Can citizenship improve the economic integration of immigrants, and if so, how? Scholars traditionally understand a citizenship premium in the labour market, besides access to restricted jobs, as the result of a positive signal of naturalisation towards employers. While we do not discard these mechanisms, we argue that explanations should also take into account that migrants anticipate rewards and opportunities of naturalisation by investing in their human capital development. We thus expect to observe improved employment outcomes already before the acquisition of citizenship. We use micro-level register data from Statistics Netherlands from 1999 until 2011 (N = 94,320) to test this expectation. Results show a one-time boost in the probability of having employment after naturalisation, consistent with the prevalent notion of positive signalling. However, we find that the employment probability of naturalising migrants already develops faster during the years leading up to citizenship acquisition, even when controlling for endogeneity of naturalisation. We conclude that it is not just the positive signal of citizenship that improves employment opportunities, but also migrants’ human capital investment in anticipation of naturalisation.

Read at the journal’s website.

 

Beyond instrumental citizenship: the Spanish and Italian citizenship regimes in times of crisis


By Claudia Finotelli, MariaCaterina La Barbera & Gabriel Echeverría, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2017

The aim of this article is to contribute to the current debate on integration during economic downturn by analysing to what extent citizenship regimes may offer opportunities for instrumental uses of naturalisation in times of economic crisis. Its main goal is to provide a more nuanced view of citizenship acquisition, its implications and its alleged instrumental uses to stabilise legal status and improve mobility chances. For this purpose, our analysis focuses on the nexus between citizenship regimes and naturalisations trends in Italy and Spain as two major Southern European immigration countries that have similar migration histories, but rather different citizenship regimes. The first part of the article provides an overview of the scholarly debate on the concept of instrumental citizenship and elaborates a typology of the possible instrumental uses by states and migrants. The second part examines the citizenship regimes and analyses the opportunity structures opened up by citizenship acquisition channels in Italy and Spain. Finally, the article analyses naturalisation trends to show that instrumental uses of citizenship acquisition are closely connected to the different opportunity structures offered by the Italian and Spanish citizenship regimes.

Read at the publisher’s website.

 

The “Stateless Person” Definition in Selected EU Member States: Variations of Interpretation and Application


By Katia Bianchini, Refugee Survey Quarterly, 2017

The international obligations in the area of statelessness have much been discussed in the past 10 years. It is now generally recognized that Article 1(1) of the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons provides the internationally accepted definition of “stateless person” describing a person who is not considered a national under the operation of the law of any State. Nevertheless, only little is known of its implementation. As it is left to State Parties to interpret and implement the rights and status of stateless persons, the purpose of this article is to analyse how 10 European Union Member States treat stateless persons’ claims for protection by looking at the outcome of cases of those who have a disputed nationality and stateless Palestinians. Research uncovers striking variations and a strict reading of the “stateless person” definition that are significant both in terms of applicants’ experiences of the process and the States’ compliance with international law. The empirical data of the article support the view that States should formally incorporate Article 1(1) into their national legislation, adopt specific statelessness determination procedures and introduce objective criteria for the assessment of stateless status to effectively implement the 1954 Convention.

Read at the journal’s website.

 

Special Issue: Citizenship in Post-Communist Eastern Europe: Contracting, Expanding and Overlapping


By Costica Dumbrava (ed.), Central and Eastern European Migration Review, 2017

Citizenship has been rediscovered in Eastern Europe after the collapse of the communist regimes and the breakdown of multi-national states. This rediscovery revealed not only great opportunities with regard to democratic inclusion, national redefinition and the remedying of past wrongs but also important risks, such as legal and political exclusion, ethnic engineering and discrimination. The broader revival of citizenship in recent decades has triggered a renewed academic interest in issues of citizenship, albeit this research had remained biased towards Western experiences, such as long-term immigration and social integration. Although it would be ill-advised to talk of Eastern European models of citizenship, the region does present a number of empirical and theoretical puzzles that can enrich the existing literature by challenging conventional approaches and stimulating more-balanced and contextual theoretical perspectives.The articles gathered in this special issue seek to analyse the development of citizenship regimes in several post-communist Eastern European countries by providing insights into specific national and regional issues and by reflecting on the existing literature on citizenship from a regional perspective.

Full text at CEEMR website.

 

The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship


By Ayelet Shachar, Rainer Bauboeck, Irene Bloemraad, and Maarten Vink (eds.), Oxford University Press, 2017

Contrary to predictions that it would become increasingly redundant in a globalizing world, citizenship is back with a vengeance. The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship brings together leading experts in law, philosophy, political science, economics, sociology, and geography to provide a multidisciplinary, comparative discussion of different dimensions of citizenship: as legal status and political membership; as rights and obligations; as identity and belonging; as civic virtues and practices of engagement; and as a discourse of political and social equality or responsibility for a common good. The contributors engage with some of the oldest normative and substantive quandaries in the literature, dilemmas that have renewed salience in today's political climate. As well as setting an agenda for future theoretical and empirical explorations, this Handbook explores the state of citizenship today in an accessible and engaging manner that will appeal to a wide academic and non-academic audience. Chapters highlight variations in citizenship regimes practiced in different countries, from immigrant states to 'non-western' contexts, from settler societies to newly independent states, attentive to both migrants and those who never cross an international border. Topics include the 'selling' of citizenship, multilevel citizenship, in-between statuses, citizenship laws, post-colonial citizenship, the impact of technological change on citizenship, and other cutting-edge issues. This Handbook is the major reference work for those engaged with citizenship from a legal, political, and cultural perspective. Written by the most knowledgeable senior and emerging scholars in their fields, this comprehensive volume offers state-of-the-art analyses of the main challenges and prospects of citizenship in today's world of increased migration and globalization. Special emphasis is put on the question of whether inclusive and egalitarian citizenship can provide political legitimacy in a turbulent world of exploding social inequality and resurgent populism.

Details at the publisher’s website.

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